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        2. 當前位置:隨筆吧>文言文>孟子> 孟子·萬章下·第九節

          孟子·萬章下·第九節

          《孟子·萬章下·第九節》文言文全文

          齊宣王問卿。孟子曰:“王何卿之問也?”

          王曰:“卿不同乎?”曰:“不同。有貴戚之卿,有異姓之卿。”

          王曰:“請問貴戚之卿。”曰:“君有大過則諫,反覆之而不聽,則易位。”王勃然變乎色。

          曰:“王勿異也。王問臣,臣不敢不以正對。”王色定,然后請問

          異姓之卿。

          曰:“君有過則諫,反覆之而不聽,則去。”

          《孟子·萬章下·第九節》全文翻譯

          齊宣王向孟子請教關于大臣公卿的問題。

          孟子說:“大王問的是什么樣的卿呢?”

          齊宣王說:“難道卿還有不同的嗎?”

          孟子說:“是有不同的,有顯貴親戚的公卿,有非王族的異姓公卿。”

          齊宣王說:“請問顯貴親戚的公卿。”

          孟子說:“國君有大的過錯他們則勸諫,反復勸諫不聽,就另立國君。”

          齊宣王臉色一下子變得很難看。

          孟子說:“大王不要見怪,大王問臣,臣不敢不以正面的答案回答。”

          齊宣王臉色平靜下來,然后問非王族的公卿。

          孟子說:“國君有過錯他們則勸諫,反復勸諫不聽,他們就會離開這個國家。”

          《孟子·萬章下·第九節》評析

          弘揚大臣的職責和權力而限制君主權力無限地膨脹,這也是孟子仁政思想的內容之一,體現出一定程度的民主政治色彩。

          王室宗族的卿大夫因為與國君有親緣關系,國君的祖先也就是他的祖先,所以既不能離去,又不能坐視政權覆亡,當國君有重大錯誤又不聽勸諫時,就可以另立新君。孟子在這里是弘揚宗族大臣的權力而限制君主個人的權力,從理論上說是正確的。但我們知道,這種另立新君,在實踐上往往釀成的,就是宮廷內亂.所謂“禍起蕭墻之內”,弄得不好,還會引起曠日持久的戰爭

          對異姓卿大夫來說,問題就要簡單得多了,他們既沒有王室宗族卿大夫那么大的權力,也沒有那么大的職責。所以,能勸諫就勸諫,不能勸諫就辭職而去,各走一方罷了。其實,這也是孔子“所謂大臣者,以道事君,不可則止”(《論語?先進》)的意思。

          總起來說,孔、孟都提倡臣有臣道,臣有臣的氣節和人格,反對愚忠,反對一味順從,這的確是有積極意義的。

          大臣對于國君,可以采取哪些行為方式呢?勸諫,勸諫不聽,則易主,或離去,這些都是大臣——卿可以選擇的行為方式。這也就表明了卿的種類以及他們的職責、權力和應有的原則,也體現了孟子以天下為己任的憂國憂民的憂患意識,也體現了孟子那種至大至剛的浩然正氣。

          本章是全篇最后一章,從評論伯夷、伊尹、柳下惠、孔子等人的行為方式開始,孟子分別論述了國君和臣民們對國家統治的行為方式,其重心還是立足在“愛民”上,在人人平等上,在以拯救天下民眾為己任上,在依照一定的社會行為規范上,因為只有這樣,所行為的行為方式才能是最佳行為方式。如果是為了一己之私,是選擇不到最佳行為方式的,因此也是最終達不到目的的。

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