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        2. 當前位置:隨筆吧>文言文>孟子> 孟子·告子上·第二節

          孟子·告子上·第二節

          《孟子·告子上·第二節》文言文全文

          告子曰:“性猶湍水也,決諸東方則東流,袂諸西方則西流。人性之無分于善不善也,猶水之無分于東西也。”

          孟子曰:“水信無分于東西。無分于上下乎?人性之善也,猶水之就下也。人無有不善,水無有不下。今夫水,搏而躍之,可使過顙;激而行之,可使在山。是豈水之性哉?其勢則然也。人之可使為不善,其性亦猶是也。”

          《孟子·告子上·第二節》全文翻譯

          告子說:“人性就好比是水勢急速的水流,在東邊沖開缺口就向東流,在西邊沖開缺口就向西流。所以人性沒有善不善之分,就好比水沒有流向東西方之分。”

          孟子說:“水流確實沒有東流西流之分,但是沒有上流下流之分嗎?人的本性是善良的,就好比是向下流淌一樣。人的本性沒有不善良的,水的本性沒有不向下流淌的。如今的水,被擊打就可以濺得很高,可以使它高過額頭;堵塞水道使它倒行,就可以使它流上山崗。難道這是水的本性嗎?是形勢使它這樣的。人之所以可以使他不善良,其本性的變化也是一樣的。”

          《孟子·告子上·第二節》注釋

          湍:(tuan穿)《楚辭·抽思》:“長瀨湍流。”《淮南子·說山》:“稻生于水,而不能生于湍瀨之流。”《史記·河渠書》:“水湍悍。”《說文》:“湍,疾瀨也。”這里用為水勢急速之意。

          《孟子·告子上·第二節》評析

          值得我們特別注意的,是孟子的雄辯風范。隨口接過論敵的論據而加以發揮,以水為喻就以水為喻。就好比我們格斗時說,你用刀咱們就用刀,你用槍咱們就用槍。欲擒故縱,持之有故,言之成理。“水信無分于東西。無分于上下平?”一語殺入穴道,只需要輕輕一轉,其論證便堅不可移,使讀者讀來,不得不束手就擒。于是,我們便都是性善論者了。

          只不過,當我們放下書本而面對現實生活中的種種邪惡時,的確又會發出疑問:人性真如孟老夫子所描述的那般善良,那般純潔得一塵不染嗎?這種時候,我們即便不會成為茍子“性惡論”的信徒,多半也會同意告子的觀點了罷:“人性之無分于善不時, 猶水之無分于東西也。”

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