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        2. 當前位置:隨筆吧>文言文>孟子> 孟子·告子上·第五節

          孟子·告子上·第五節

          《孟子·告子上·第五節》文言文全文

          孟季子問公都子曰:“何以謂義內也?”

          曰:“行吾敬,故謂之內也。”

          “鄉人長于伯兄一歲,則誰敬?”曰:“敬兄。”

          “酌則誰先?”曰:“先酌鄉人。”

          “所敬在此,所長在彼,果在外,非由內也。”公都子不能答,以告孟子。

          孟子曰:“敬叔父乎?敬弟乎?彼將曰‘敬叔父’。曰:‘弟為尸,則誰敬?’彼將曰‘敬弟。’子曰:‘惡在其敬叔父也?’彼將曰:‘在位故也。’子亦曰:‘在位故也。庸敬在兄,斯須之敬在鄉人。’”季子聞之曰:“敬叔父則敬,敬弟則敬,果在外,非由內也。”公都子曰:“冬日則飲湯,夏日則飲水,然則飲食亦在外也?”

          《孟子·告子上·第五節》全文翻譯

          孟季子問公都子說:“為什么說行為方式是內在的呢?”

          公都子說:“對人表達內心的敬意,所以說是內在的。”

          孟季子問:“有一個鄉里的人比你兄長大一歲,該尊敬誰呢?”

          公都子說:“尊敬兄長。”

          孟季子問:“倒時先給誰斟呢?”

          公都子說:“先給鄉里人。”

          孟季子說:“你內心尊敬的是兄長,所表現出的卻是恭敬對待他人,可見行為方式是外在的,不是由內心發出的。”

          公都子不能應答,便把這事告訴孟子。

          孟子說:“應該尊敬叔父呢?還是尊敬弟弟呢?他會說:‘尊敬叔父。’你說:‘弟弟是祭祀時代表死者受祭的人,那該尊敬誰呢?’他會說:‘尊敬弟弟。’你就說:‘為什么又說要尊敬叔父呢?’他會說:‘這是因為地位的緣故。’你就說:‘是因為地位的緣故,需要尊敬兄長,但在不同的場合就該恭敬地對待他人。’”

          孟季子聽了這些話后,說:“在這種情況下尊敬叔父,在那種情況下尊敬弟弟,這畢竟是外在情況決定的,并不是由內心發出的。”

          公都子說:“冬天則喝熱湯,夏天則喝涼水,那么飲食是由外在的天氣所決定的嗎?”

          《孟子·告子上·第五節》注釋

          1.孟季子:人名,情況不詳,有三種說法,姑且不論。

          2.尸:《詩"召南"采蘋》:“誰其尸之?”《詩"小雅"楚茨》:“神具醉止,皇尸載起。”《儀禮·士虞禮》:“祝延尸。”《禮記·曲禮》:“孫可以為王父尸。”《儀禮·特牲禮》注:“尸,所祭者之孫也。祖之尸則主人乃宗子。禰之尸則主人乃父道。”《說文》:“尸,神像也。象臥之形。”這里用為祭祀時代表死者受祭的人之意。

          3.庸:(yang雍)《書·堯典》:“疇咨若時登庸。”《書·康誥》:“用其義刑義殺,勿庸以次汝封。乃汝盡遜曰時敘,惟曰未有遜事。”《詩·王風·兔爰》:“我生之初,尚無庸。”《詩·齊風·南山》:“齊子庸止。”《論語·雍也》:“中庸之為德也,甚至矣乎!民鮮久矣。”《禮記·中庸》:“君子中庸;小人反中庸。”《說文》:“庸,用也。”這里用為用、需要之意。

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