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        2. 當前位置:隨筆吧>文言文>孟子> 孟子·告子上·第十五節

          孟子·告子上·第十五節

          《孟子·告子上·第十五節》文言文全文

          公都子問曰:“鈞是人也,或為大人,或為小人,何也?”

          孟子曰:“從其大體為大人,從其小體為小人。”

          曰:“鈞是人也,或從其大體,或從其小體,何也?”

          曰:“耳目之官不思,而蔽于物,物交物,則引之而已矣。心之官則思,思則得之,不思則不得也。此天之所與我者,先立乎其大者,則其小者弗能奪也。此為大人而已矣。”

          《孟子·告子上·第十五節》全文翻譯

          公都子問:“同樣是人,有些人被稱為大人,有些人被稱為小人,這是為什么呢?”

          孟子說:“從其考慮大事的,就稱為大人;從其考慮小事的,就稱為是小人。”

          公都子說:“同樣是人,或者是從事大事,或者是從事小事,這是為什么呢?”

          孟子說:“人的耳朵眼睛等器官,不會思考因而會被蒙蔽,此物一接觸外物,只是被引導而已。心這個器官則會思考,思考就會得到答案,不會思考的就得不到答案。這是上天賦予人類的,首先確立人生的大事,那么小的事情就不能占據人的心靈。這就是被稱為大人的原因。”

          《孟子·告子上·第十五節》注釋

          1.鈞:同“均”。

          2.我:泛指人類。

          《孟子·告子上·第十五節》評析

          這一章正好可以作為上一章的補充。上一章是從否定的方面 達了“養小失大”的害處,這一章則從正面來說怎樣樹立“大”的 問題。而且,所謂“大”“小”也很清楚了;“心”是體之大者,也 是體之貴者;其它器官如眼睛、耳朵等都只是體之小者,體之賤 者。所以要樹立心的統帥作用,只要心的統帥作用樹立起來,其 它感官也就不會被外物所蒙蔽而誤入歧途了。

          單就本章內容來看,其中最突出的仍然是對心的重視,所謂 “心之官則思”成為了后世的名言,“思則得之,不思則不得”更 是強調了思考對人的重要性。聯系到本篇所記載孟子對于人與動 物區別的一系列論述來看,這里所說的“此天之所與我者”實際上正是用“心之官則思”這一人類所獨有的特點來劃分人與動物 協限,弘揚心靈的思考對于人類的重要意義。

          本章另一點值得重視的是心與耳目等感官的關系問題。耳目等感官由于不會思考,所以容易為外物所蒙蔽,心由于會思考,所 以不容易為外物所蒙蔽。(當然,“思則得之”,思考了就會這樣; “不思則不得”,如果你不思考,心也只是一種擺設,不起作用。) 所以,只要“先立乎其大者”,把心樹立起來了,“則其小者不能奪也”,其它次要的部分,比如耳目等感官就不會被外物所奪, 所蒙蔽了。我們看到,這實際上已接觸到所謂感覺與理解、感性認識與理性認識的問題,我們在前面曾經說過,孟子的整個學 說,具有非常濃厚了心理學色彩。所以,他雖然不可能提出感覺與理解、感性認識與理性認識這些現代性的概念,但他對它們的 實質有所把握則是完全有可能的。

          至于他把“心”作為思考的器官,而沒有發現“大腦”這個 新大陸,則是傳統性的認識局限,不是他個人所能超載的了。事實上,作為傳統性的習慣,我們今天在語言運用中也仍然把 “心”作為思想器官的代名詞,又何況在兩千多年前的孟子時代呢?

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