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        2. 當前位置:隨筆吧>文言文>孟子> 孟子·告子上·第十六節

          孟子·告子上·第十六節

          《孟子·告子上·第十六節》文言文全文

          孟子曰:“有天爵者,有人爵者。仁義忠信,樂善不倦,此天爵也;公卿大夫,此人爵也。古之人修其天爵,而人爵從之。今之人修其天爵,以要人爵;既得人爵,而棄其天爵,則惑之甚者也,終亦必亡而已矣。”

          《孟子·告子上·第十六節》全文翻譯

          孟子說:“有天然的爵位等級,有人間的爵位等級。建立人與人之間相互親愛的關系、選擇最佳行為方式、忠實、誠信,樂于幫助別人而不厭倦,這是天然的爵位等級。做到了公、卿、大夫等職位,這是人間的爵位等級。古代的人著重修養天然的爵位等級,人間的爵位等級也就會隨之而來。如今的人著重修養天然的爵位等級,目的是為了獲得人間的爵位等級。一旦取得了人間的爵位等級,就拋棄了天然的爵位等級,真是糊涂透頂了,結果必然把一切都葬送掉。”

          《孟子·告子上·第十六節》注釋

          要(yao):即“邀”,求取,追求

          《孟子·告子上·第十六節》評析

          所謂“天賜”只是一種比擬性的說法,天爵實際上是精神的爵位,內在的爵位,無需誰來委任封賞,也無法世襲繼承。人爵則是偏于物質的、外在的爵位,必須靠人委任或封賞或世襲。

          說穿了,天爵是精神貴族,人爵是社會貴族。

          時代發展到民主的今天,社會貴族(至少在名份上)已日趨消亡,而精神貴族(按照我們這里的特定含義,而不是通常的意義)卻長存。

          回過頭來說,孔、孟又何嘗不是他們時代的精神貴族呢?

          “忠信仁義,樂善不倦。”

          這樣的精神貴族,即使是在我們這個平民化的時代,是不是也多多益善呢?

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