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        2. 當前位置:隨筆吧>文言文>孟子> 孟子·告子上·第十七節

          孟子·告子上·第十七節

          《孟子·告子上·第十七節》文言文全文

          孟子曰:“欲貴者,人之同心也。人人有貴于己者,弗思耳。人之所貴者,非良貴也。趙孟之所貴,趙孟能賤之。詩云:‘既醉以酒,既飽以德。’言飽乎仁義也,所以不愿人之膏粱之味也;令聞廣譽施于身,所以不愿人之文繡也。”

          《孟子·告子上·第十七節》全文翻譯

          孟子說:“盼望尊貴是每個人都有的想法,而每個人都有自己的可貴之處,只是沒有思考罷了。人們平常所珍貴的,并不真正值得珍貴。趙孟能讓一個人或一件東西尊貴,趙孟也能讓他(它)卑賤。《詩經》上說:‘其醉人以美酒,其滿足人以規律。’是說讓人滿足于仁義,不希望人們僅僅貪吃肥肉和細糧等美昧。眾所稱譽的名望已經獲得,也就不要羨慕別人刺繡精美的衣服了。”

          《孟子·告子上·第十七節》注釋

          1.趙孟:人名,晉國的執政大臣。

          2.既:《詩·小雅·大東》:“佻佻公子,行彼周行,既往既來,使我心疚。”裴學海《古書虛字集釋》卷五:“既,猶其也。一為指事之詞。”這里用為代詞,相當于“其”之意。

          3.飽:《詩"小雅"苕之華》:“人可以食,鮮可以飽。”《詩·大雅·既醉》:“既醉以酒,既飽以德。”《論語·述而》:“子食於有喪者之側,未嘗飽也。”《文心雕龍·事類》:“有學飽而才餒,有才富而學貧。”這里用為充滿、滿足之意。

          4.膏:《易·屯·九五》:“屯其膏,小,貞,吉;大,貞,兇。”《左傳·成公十年》:“膏之下。”《大戴禮記·易本命》:“無角者膏。”《莊子·則陽》:“內熱溲膏。”《春秋·玄命苞》:“膏者,神之液也。”《山海經·海內經》:“西南,黑水之間有都廣之野,后稷葬焉,爰有膏菽、膏稻、膏黍、膏稷。”這里用為甘甜、肥腴、美好之物之意。膏梁:肥肉和細糧。

          5.文繡:刺繡精美的絲織品或衣服。

          《孟子·告子上·第十七節》評析

          “天上天下,唯我獨尊。”

          佛主慈悲,一語道破天機,開悟眾生。

          實際上,佛主所說,與孟子這里所說倒有了相通之處。

          自尊者人尊之,自貴者人貴之。相反,自經溝讀,自慚形穢, 妄自菲薄者人賤之。

          因此,人以自尊自責為貴,千萬不要“拋卻自家無盡藏,沿 門持缽效貧兒。”用我們通俗的話來說,叫做“端著金飯碗討。”

          要不端著金飯碗討口,關鍵是要自己知道所端的是金飯碗,認 識它的價值。要自尊自貴,關鍵是要知道自己有值得尊貴的東西, 這就是孟子所說“人人有貴于己者”。從后文來看,這種己所貴, 實際上就是仁義道德、令聞廣譽,與之相對的,則是膏粱文繡,也 就是金錢富貴。所以,在孟子看來,世上有兩種尊貴的東西,一 是外在的,即膏粱文繡,這是要靠別人給與的;二是內在的,即 仁義道德,這是不靠別人給與而要靠自己良心發現,自己培育滋 養的。前者并不是真正尊貴的東西,因為別人可以給與你也可以 剝奪你;后者才是真正尊貴的,別人不可剝奪的。正如盂子引曾 子所言:“彼以其富,我以吾仁;彼以其爵,我以吾義。吾何慊 (少)乎哉?”(《孟子公孫丑下》)這是自尊自責的典范。說到 這里,實際上又回到上一章所討論的“天爵”與“人爵”問題上 去了。

          孟子的這些思想,對于我們今天文人們所提出的保持社會良 心地位,“抵抗”金錢與物欲的誘惑,是不是有積極意義呢?

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